Tufa Mounds Formed “Instantaneously,” Geologically Speaking

first_imgTufa towers have been found forming in Big Soda Lake, Nevada, at the rate of 30mm/year.  Now more than 3 meters tall, that means they could have reached their current height in only 100 years.  Rosen et al., who reported this in the May issue of Geology,1 warn that “care should be taken when trying to determine the significance of variations in isotopic or chemical compositions of tufas that may have been caused by mixing with groundwater,” because “The exceptionally fast growth of the tufa mounds indicates that large tufa deposits may form almost instantaneously in geologic time.”  They point out that similar structures “have been used as proxy for paleoclimate throughout the world” such as in Spain.  They conclude,The presence of large, fast-growing tufa mounds in a modern closed-basin lake indicates that care must be taken when evaluating the growth rate of ancient tufa mounds for paleoclimate or signatures and paleohydrologic information.  In particular, if overgrowth and/or recrystallization such as described here occur, there is ample possibility of obtaining a mixed signature from tufa that may not be representative of either groundwater recharge sources or local surface water.  In such cases, caution must be exercised in elucidating the paleoclimate or paleohydrologic signature.1Rosen, Arehart and Lico, “Exceptionally fast growth rate of 100-yr-old tufa, Big Soda Lake, Nevada: Implications for using tufa as a paleoclimate proxy,” Geology Vol. 32, No. 5 (May 2004), pp. 409�412, doi: 10.1130/G20386.1.Large tufa mounds are found around the world.  Some notable examples are at Mono Lake and Searles Dry Lake in California.  Before assuming these structures took long ages to form, or can tell us about past climates, we should take note of these geologists’ surprising findings.(Visited 19 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Flight: If You Can’t Evolve It, Model Your Imagination

first_imgThis is silly. A robot model with outstretched arms cannot begin to say how dinosaurs took wing.“Robot dinosaurs help unlock the evolution of flight” shouts a headline at New Atlas. Michael Irving uses standard hype language to try to interest a bored public dazed by non-stop evolutionary myths:On the timeline of the evolution of flight in birds, gliding seems like a logical first step. But new research suggests that some species could have made the jump straight to flapping flight without a gliding phase in the meantime, which could force a rewrite of our understanding of avian evolution….Although it couldn’t fly, Caudipteryx‘s wings might have flapped when it ran, which in turn could have led to the eventual evolution of active flight. He describes how evolutionists at a Japanese university built a robotic model of Caudipteryx, one of the disputed “feathered dinosaurs” (CMI). They designed the model to run, and as it ran, hold out its arms. Who is surprised that the arms flapped as it ran? That was built into the model. What can this possibly say about flight? Nothing. Without a living Caudipteryx to watch, there is no way to tie it into the “evolution of flight.” And to think that any animal could suddenly leap off the ground and fly is to exercise fact-free imagination to the extreme (see Illustra Media documentary Flight: The Genius of Birds to understand the anatomical and physiological requirements for powered flight).One might as well say that children are evolving flight when they flap their arms while running. If this were a law of nature, kangaroos and lizards are on the way to flying, too. They “could have made the jump to flapping flight,” couldn’t they? The “could have” phrase allows for anything. The paper in PLoS Biology has such a high perhapsimaybecouldness index (use of “might have” and “may have,” etc.) it’s ridiculous. One can only hope the toymakers had some fun goofing off on the job.For comic relief, watch this historical YouTube video of man’s ridiculous attempts to fly by attaching wings to the arms. Powered flight by humans only made headway through biomimetics: imitation of the best flyers on the planet — birds.They refer to Ken Dial’s partridge-family theory for the origin of flight, one of the stupidest cases of evolutionary storytelling ever reported on CEH (19 July 2016). Dial watched living partridge chicks running up ramps, and imagined they were reliving their evolutionary heritage of their dinosaur ancestors beginning training for flight. That theory survived for over 15 years in the literature, not because it was sensible, but because evolutionists had nothing better to offer.(Visited 224 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Photo library: Countryside 17

first_img{loadposition tc}Click on a thumbnail for a low-resolution image, or right-click on the link below it to download a high-resolution copy of the image.» Download Countryside contact sheet (1.6MB) » Download full image library contact sheet (10.5MB) Western Cape province:The sun sets over a railway line near Swellendam.Photo: Rodger Bosch,MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image Free State province: A field of sunflowers stands out against the landscape of the Eastern Free State. Photo: Graeme Williams, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image Free State province: A field of sunflowers stands out against the landscape of the Eastern Free State. Photo: Graeme Williams, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image Free State province:Sunflower fields in the Western Free State. Photo: Graeme Williams, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image Free State province: Sunflower fields in the Western Free State. Photo: Graeme Williams, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image Free State province: Sunflower fields in the Western Free State. Photo: Graeme Williams, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image Free State province: Sunflower fields in the Western Free State. Photo: Graeme Williams, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image Free State province: Sunflower fields in the Western Free State. Photo: Graeme Williams, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image Free State province: Sunflower fields in the Western Free State. Photo: Graeme Williams, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image COUNTRYSIDE 17: {loadposition cs}Having trouble downloading high-resolution images? Queries about the image library? Email Janine Erasmus at [email protected]last_img read more