Engineering a better life

first_imgWhen Kathy Ku ’13 proposed to build a water-filter factory in Uganda for $15,000 last year, her contacts in other African countries advised her to double her budget.Starting from scratch on a plot of land donated by Kumi University, in a country where 10 million people — a third of the population — lack access to clean water, Ku forged ahead. She and a team of Harvard College classmates rented a truck, negotiated an individual price for each building material (cement, wire mesh, and so on), and finished with $3,000 to spare.“We didn’t know better, and we didn’t realize how difficult it would be,” Ku recalls. “But now we can construct a factory, apparently.”When the factory needed a hydraulic press to increase its output of clay water filters, Ku asked around.“They said, ‘There’s no way,’” she remembers. “Everyone said that in Uganda you couldn’t make them: You had to go to Kenya.”Undeterred, and with help from the undergraduate teaching labs at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), Ku bought a cheap hydraulic log splitter, dismantled it at her parents’ house in Illinois, and carried the components to Uganda in her suitcase. The scheme gave her a thorough introduction to Ugandan customs regulations — and solved the problem.Driven by idealism yet grounded in solid engineering principles and cultural awareness, the project is anything but naïve. If all goes to plan, by next August Ku and her classmates will have created a fully functional and self-sustaining water-filter factory, employing 14 people and supplying clean water to households across Uganda at half the cost of imported filters.Equally comfortable taking apart a diesel engine or quoting Adam Smith, Ku is the very picture of a Harvard engineer: fluent in hard science, intellectually well-rounded, and passionate.Inspired by her early involvement with Harvard College Engineers Without Borders and her experience at a secondary school for Ugandan mothers in the summer of 2010, Ku enrolled in Harvard courses ranging from public health to technological innovation. As her interest in addressing the Ugandan water crisis grew, she recruited other students to help.“I must have talked about it so much during dinner that somebody said, ‘Kathy, why don’t you just go for it?’ And before I knew it, I had a group of students who were interested in doing what I wanted to do.”Suvai Gunasekaran ’13 (biomedical engineering), John Kye ’14 (economics), and more than a dozen other students joined the project, which they named “Sustainable Point-Of-Use Treatment and Storage (SPOUTS) of Water.” SPOUTS, now a registered nonprofit, has received support from across the University: the Committee on African Studies, Nectar and TECH at SEAS, and the Harvard President’s Challenge all contributed.And Ku, who studied molecular and cellular biology as an undergraduate, is now a master’s student in engineering sciences at SEAS.“No matter where you’re coming from, if you want to understand technology, if you want to make a positive impact in a technology-driven world, you belong in a SEAS classroom,” says SEAS Dean Cherry A. Murray. “This is ‘engineering for everyone.’”Attracted by engaging courses and the real-world relevance of applied research, students are flocking to SEAS classrooms. Enrollment in SEAS courses and the number of SEAS concentrators have more than doubled since the School was established in 2007, filling lecture halls and laboratories to capacity — and posing new challenges for faculty and staff.Enabling continued growth at SEAS is one of six top priorities of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences’ $2.5-billion Campaign for Arts and Sciences. SEAS aims to raise $450 million to increase the size of its world-class faculty; create modern instructional spaces for teaching, hands-on design, and laboratory research; invest in “innovation funds” for cutting-edge, high-impact research; and support talented students through graduate fellowships.“Harvard’s School of Engineering and Applied Sciences is reimagining engineering education and research for the 21st century,” says FAS Dean Michael D. Smith, the John H. Finley, Jr. Professor of Engineering and Applied Sciences. “What makes SEAS truly special for undergraduates is that, at Harvard, students receive world-class instruction in engineering as part of a world-class liberal arts education.”SEAS is a place where one student can improve the outcome of cancer chemotherapy. Another, tinkering in the small hours of the morning, can help a tiny robotic insect take flight. A third can use mathematics and physics to understand human development. And insights from all three, cross-pollinating in a hallway conversation, could make extraordinary contributions to the future of science.“It is not unusual for the ideas developed in courses and labs to take on a life of their own after the end of the semester,” says Fawwaz Habbal, executive dean for education and research at SEAS. “We are fortunate to have outstanding students, and we are very pleased to work with them and mentor them in a process that adds value. Given the right inspiration, the right mentorship, and access to resources, they have what it takes to change the world.”For example, while taking an engineering sciences course called “Idea Translation” a few years ago, Jessica Lin ’09, Jessica O. Matthews ’10, Julia Silverman ’10, and Hemali Thakkar ’11 imagined a soccer ball that could generate enough energy during play to charge a cellphone or power a light in parts of the world where electricity is unreliable. They kept working on the project after graduation, and by July of this year, President Obama was kicking around a functional Soccket ball during a visit to Tanzania. “I don’t want to get too technical,” the president said, “but I thought it was pretty cool.”Indeed, SEAS faculty, students, and alumni are improving living conditions around the world. Whether designing medical devices in India, improving a water supply in the Dominican Republic, searching for land mines in Cambodia, recycling electronic waste in Ghana, examining carbon emissions in China, measuring pollution over the Amazon, or tracing the flow of mercury in the Arctic, the impact of their efforts has been profound.For the students working in Uganda, making a difference means understanding how to build change from within a community. Chlorine tablets could be an effective way to sanitize water, but in Uganda no one would like the taste; instead, the Harvard project’s clay filters complement existing practices, where water is stored in terracotta pots to cool.SPOUTS also hopes to encourage participation by selling filters to individual households. “It allows people to take ownership and almost view the filters as a social status,” Ku explains. “Once that mind-set gets rolling, it becomes a commodity that becomes worth investing in.”The SPOUTS model is designed to be sustainable long after the students have moved on. Partnering with nongovernmental organizations as distributors, Ku and her classmates will require that income from filter sales be used to create jobs and finance local projects.“Solving complex global challenges requires holistic and long-range thinking. Our students gain that perspective through rigorous engineering courses, exposure to ideas from across the liberal arts, and hands-on practical experience,” says Murray. “The SPOUTS of Water project is tackling waterborne illness with real success.”Eventually, when the filter factory no longer needs her, Ku hopes to attend medical school and then to move to rural Uganda as a physician. “I’m not a hardcore engineer, I’m not a hardcore biologist,” she says, “but I think it has allowed me to be a better leader.”What if? What if the world’s most accomplished engineers and applied scientists tackled the world’s most intractable challenges? At Harvard SEAS, all it takes is a question.last_img read more

‘Chitlins’

first_imgUse care in the kitchenHarrison said cross-contamination from raw chitterlings ontokitchen surfaces, food, toys, bottles and pacifiers is to blamefor the spread of Yersinia.While anyone who consumes the bacteria is susceptible, Harrisonsaid most cases in Georgia occur in children less than 5 yearsold. These cases often occur in children under 2 who aren’t eveneating chitterlings.”Young children are the ones getting sick from the bacteria beingspread throughout the kitchen,” she said. “If toys, bottles orpacifiers come in contact with contaminated areas in the kitchen,children get sick.”Anything that has touched the raw chitterlings or their juices isa potential source of contamination.Common symptoms of Yersinia are diarrhea, stomach pains andfever. These symptoms usually occur within three to seven days ofconsumption.Younger children may have severe, bloody diarrhea, while olderchildren and adults may have severe stomach pain that resemblesappendicitis. Severe cases may require hospitalization. By Brooke HatfieldUniversity of GeorgiaChitterlings may pose more risk of a food-borne illness than manypeople realize. Better known as “chitlins,” these fried favoritescan spread Yersinia enterocolitica, a bacterium commonly found inpigs and other animals.”The problem occurs when raw chitterlings are cleaned in thekitchen,” said Judy Harrison, an extension service foodspecialist with the University of Georgia College of Family andConsumer Sciences. Buy precooked or boil them yourselfTo prevent Yersinia, use only precooked chitterlings or boil themfor 5 minutes before cleaning them, according to the GeorgiaDepartment of Human Resources’ Public Health Division.Clean the kitchen thoroughly. Use a solution of 1 tablespoon ofchlorine bleach per gallon of warm water to treat surfaces thathave come into contact with raw chitterlings or their juices.Then allow the surfaces to air-dry.Wash utensils in this solution, too, once you’ve washed them inhot water and soap or in the dishwasher. Place them in thesolution for 1 minute. Then allow them to air-dry.After boiling the chitterlings, clean and cook them as usual.Make sure they’re thoroughly cooked before eating them.last_img read more

A Chorus Line Still Kicking After 40 Years

first_imgSign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York For an artist, the craft can come easily. It’s getting the gig that’s the hard part.In 1975, “A Chorus Line” showed audiences just how excruciating the audition process could be. Forty years later, the stakes and sacrifices continue to be just as palpable at the John W. Engeman Theater in Northport, where the show opened late last month and runs through early May.The musical takes us into the world of a Broadway dance audition. The show begins with a large group of dancers rehearsing their new steps—the original Michael Bennett choreography recreated here by choreographer Dena DiGiacinto.But once the director, Zach (James Ludwig), narrows the chorus down to 17 dancers, the show turns into a psychological character study and a pseudo-therapy session.On the literally glowing white line on the stage, the actors physically become their respective characters through signature poses and costumes perfectly styled to match the original 1975 Broadway production. Despite mirroring the original, these actors were able to make the roles their own.Kelly Sheehan reveals a visceral vulnerability as the cynical Sheila, a dancer who makes it clear she is more woman than girl. In her “At the Ballet,” she is forced to come to terms with an upbringing of infidelity and domestic abuse. Sheehan allows us to feel for her anti-hero, but not so much that we lose Sheila’s scathing sense of humor.That humor still feels as fresh as it was in ’75. Andrew Metzgar slays in his few, but memorable lines as Bobby, a sly character who recalls growing up gay in hellishly conservative Buffalo in the mid-20th century. He lightly reveals that he dreamed up many “spectacular” ways to kill himself, but then he realized that “to kill yourself in Buffalo is redundant.”Rachel Marie Bell and DJ Petrosino also serve as comic relief as married couple Kristinie and Al, who constantly finish each other’s sentences. Kristine reveals that while she may be a skilled dancer, she can’t sing a note on key—resulting in Al’s having to be her melodic partner.As the stories wind down, Zach confronts the shy, but skilled Paul (Omar Garibay). Garibay performs the show’s celebrated monologue with a perfect balance of apprehension and desperation to let his secret out. He recalls his parents finding out he was working in a drag show after they showed up to wish him goodbye. In a tearful release, Paul is alone on stage at his most vulnerable state until Zach comforts him.Until the end, we know very little about the flawless blonde dancer in the red leotard known as Cassie (Jessica Lee Goldyn). But it is revealed that she had tried to make it in Hollywood as an actor. Then, after a series of rejections, she realized she was meant to be a dancer. Zach had been in a relationship with Cassie that ended in anger and packed bags. Here, he tells her that she is “too good for the chorus,” and she can’t blend in. In an act of desperation, Cassie performs the penultimate number, “Music in the Mirror.”Goldyn, who played Val and understudied Cassie in the 2006 revival on Broadway, shows a radical maturity in embodying the despondent Cassie. Her dancing is stronger than ever as she seamlessly slips through the shadows of the stage, confronting herself in the mirrors.Each character in “A Chorus Line” knows they all have something to lose or gain. When Paul twists his ankle while rehearsing a tap number, the dancers come to the realization that their careers could end at any point.Still, they wouldn’t choose any other path because this is what they love, what motivates them to get up in the morning, and what keeps them alive.John W. Engeman Theater, 250 Main St., Northport. engemantheater.com $69. Times vary. Through May 10.last_img read more

State Educational Dept. guidance prohibits schools from supplying hand sanitizer on buses

first_imgThe guidance states that schools themselves cannot supply the sanitizer, however students can still bring their own personal bottle of sanitizer. This is due to the combustible composition of the sanitizer. WINDSOR (WBNG) — The New York State Department of Education has stated that schools are not allowed to supply hand sanitizer on school buses. Superintendent of Schools for Windsor Dr. Jason Andrews says, “Those high surface, high touch surface areas like hand rails, seats etc will be sanitized in each run. At the end of the day our buses will be cleaned, we purchased disinfecting misting equipment so that the entire interior will be sanitized.”center_img Cleaning the buses in between routes will become a critical part of schools cleaning plans. Although schools cannot supply sanitizer on the buses, there will be plenty of sanitizer at the school once students arrive.last_img read more

PREMIUM197 companies secure cheap gas prices, contracts to be signed in May

first_imgIndonesia gas-prices certain-industries 197-companies Energy-Mineral-Resources-Ministry Kadin IPA-Indonesian-Petroleum-Association Jokowi Topics : One hundred and ninety-seven companies will buy gas at US$6 per million British thermal units (mmbtu), below the $8 per mmbtu market average, as promised by a Presidential Regulation issued in 2016.The Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM) Ministry issued a decree on April 13 stipulating that the companies, which fall within seven gas-reliant industries, are to prepare gas purchasing contracts with their respective government-assigned suppliers within one month.The 197 companies, among others, include five fertilizer producers, 46 petrochemical companies, 56 steel companies, 59 ceramics producers, 16 glassware companies, six glove producers and nine oleochemical companies.“So there is progress, but hopefully, there won’t be bureaucratic hurdles,” said Johnny Darmawan, vice chairman for oil and industry at the Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (K… Forgot Password ? Facebook Log in with your social account Google Linkedin LOG INDon’t have an account? Register herelast_img read more

Liverpool vs Arsenal TV channel, live stream, time, team news and odds

first_img Metro Sport ReporterThursday 1 Oct 2020 12:57 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link Jurgen Klopp and Mikel Arteta go head-to-head again (Picture: Getty Images)It is the second meeting of Liverpool and Arsenal within a week as the Reds host the Gunners at Anfield on Thursday night in the Carabao Cup.Jurgen Klopp’s side won the Monday night match 3-1 in the Premier League as goals from Andrew Robertson, Sadio Mane and Diogo Jota cancelled out an opener from Alexandre Lacazette.Already into the quarter-finals are Tottenham, Manchester United, Man City, Newcastle and Everton, while Brentford host Fulham and Aston Villa play Stoke in the other fourth round ties on Thursday night.When is Liverpool vs Arsenal?The match kicks-off at 7.45pm on Thursday 1 October.ADVERTISEMENTMore: FootballRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starChelsea defender Fikayo Tomori reveals why he made U-turn over transfer deadline day moveMikel Arteta rates Thomas Partey’s chances of making his Arsenal debut vs Man CityWhat TV channel is Liverpool vs Arsenal on and is there a live stream?Sky Sports Main Event and Sky Sports Football will be showing the game live with coverage starting at 7.30pm.AdvertisementAdvertisementSubscribers can stream the action on the Sky Sports app and Sky Go.Liverpool vs Arsenal team newsBoth teams will be making multiple changes from their Premier League sides.Youngsters such as Curtis Jones, Harvey Elliott and Neco Williams will come in for Liverpool, but Thiago Alcantara, Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain, Kostas Tsimikas and Jordan Henderson are all out.Arsenal may welcome back Sokratis and Cedric Soares after they returned to training from calf injuries.Liverpool vs Arsenal odds17/20 Liverpool16/5 Draw3/1 ArsenalOdds courtesy of BetfairMORE: Liverpool ‘know what Arsenal are going to do’ in Carabao Cup clash, says Curtis JonesMORE: Arsenal ready another bid for Houssem Aouar as Lyon star pushes for moveFollow Metro Sport across our social channels, on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.For more stories like this, check our sport page. Comment Advertisementcenter_img Liverpool vs Arsenal TV channel, live stream, time, team news and odds Advertisementlast_img read more

IPE Views: Investors on the fence over €315bn Juncker plan

first_imgJeremy Woolfe finds much talk, but little action so far on the European Commission’s proposed €315bn investment planLife has potentially been breathed into the EU’s new European Fund for Strategic Investment (EFSI), the plan with the ambitious aim to combat the EU’s economic stagnation.EFSI, which aims to inject €21bn into €315bn of investments, is said to be at “the very heart” of president Jean-Claude Juncker’s investment offensive.The step forward sees the idea converted into an actual proposal for an EU Regulation – that is, a set of rules that would apply uniformly across the whole economic zone. It has reached draft legalisation after only a scant 50-plus days since the first announcement was made, in November 2014.Its backers hope, perhaps optimistically, that the Regulation can now be rushed through the Brussels legislative machinery, to see the light of day by June this year.To achieve this, it will have to clear hurdles in both the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers, which represents the EU member states.  The €315bn fund, which would seek to invest over three years, is hoped to attract private and public investments into economically “strategic” sectors.These would include the development of the EU’s broadband networks, and energy transmission lines.Also, it would support smaller companies – that is, those having fewer than 3,000 employees.The intention is to encourage economic growth in the EU by underpinning investments using various processes, such as securitisation. This would reduce the risk factor for investors into target projects.EFSI is to work “in close partnership” with the European Investment Bank (EIB). The bank applies strict rules on the viability of placements.One sign of the urgency of the initiative is that, as soon as December last year, a task force had already identified more the 2,000 relevant projects, worth more than €1.3trn.  Another indication of haste is a recent announcement of a forthcoming advisory service for potential investors, to be set up by the EIB, within months.   The plan should be seen as working in conjunction with the European Structural and Investment Fund (ESIF), but there will be no direct overlap.While EFSI focuses on attracting private investors in economically viable projects, the bulk of ESIF consists of grants. Under these, EU member states are encouraged to at least double them to achieve innovative financial instruments.There are two strongly clashing assessments of Juncker’s plan, sitting alongside a third group that is sitting on the fence. For those of opposing views, in the one corner are the sceptics, who scorn EFSI.Their opponent is the European Commission-EIB combine. All groups have solid credentials in economics.An early characterisation of scorn came in The Economist newspaper. It carried a cartoon that portrayed president Juncker as a magician, and poured derision on his plan as “unbelievable”!One clearly jaundiced view came from another high-status platform. The words were: “It could happen, it could happen!” but meaning, it probably wouldn’t. This was expressed by Erik Nielsen of UniCredit, at a recent meeting of Brussels-based think tank Bruegel.The chief economist at the Milan-based banking and financial services firm listed several “missing” criteria. These included (unlikely) waivers from the EU’s Stability and Growth Pact (SGP), although the Commission will allow some limited concessions to ensure countries are not hindered by the 3% new debt threshold.He added a need for work on the SGP to separate investment from consumption. The bank’s equity value is over €600trn.Close to home, the Commission itself states that pension funds are, in principle, following EFSI with interest, but not committing themselves. It finds it “too early to give figures” on the proportion of the estimated €12trn of European insurance and occupation pension at present invested outside the EU that might be moved to inside the fold.Among those sitting on the fence is PensionsEurope itself, representing the occupational pension sector. The federation states that EFSI could be a “step in the right direction”. “No doubt the investors will look into the matter and make their decisions in due course.”It adds, pragmatically, that pension funds “just have to look into individual projects – and decide whether to invest or not”.Similarly, Joana Valente, of BusinessEurope, tells IPE: “We are still analysing the proposal”.However, she adds, it could be “an important part of an investment-driven EU recovery”.Notably, the organisation published, in November, a 30-plus page study on “expectations from an EU Investment Plan”.This finds that: “Over six years since the onset of the financial crisis, the EU is the only major global economic region to have failed to return to pre-crisis levels of economic output”.Clearly, the industry body is anxious for a solution.last_img read more

ESG roundup: More UK consultancies pledge ESG trustee push

first_imgFour more investment consultants have pledged to ensure UK pension scheme trustees are aware of investment guidance on environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues from the country’s pensions regulator.Sixteen investment consultancies have now signed up to an initiative of the Association of Member Nominated Trustees (AMNT) and the UK Sustainable Investment and Finance Association. It was first announced in September.Cambridge Associates, Capita Employee Benefits, P-Solve Investments and Xafinity Punter Southall are the latest signatories.Last year The Pensions Regulator issued guidance for trust-based defined contribution and defined benefit pension schemes, stating that trustees should assess the financial materiality of ESG factors and allow for them accordingly in their investment strategy. In agreeing to the AMNT’s and UKSIF’s initiative, the 16 consultancies have publicly stated that they consider the guidance to be a major development in TPR’s approach, and that it puts trustees and their advisers under an obligation to react.The consultancies will bring the guidance to the attention of UK pension fund clients through various routes, for example putting consideration of ESG issues on trustee meeting agendas.The Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI) is also seeking to harness the power of investment consultants to drive more ESG investing. It has said that most investment consultants and their asset owner clients have so far failed to consider ESG issues in investment practice, and that “the full suite of investment consultants’ service delivery should be reviewed from an ESG perspective”.It is consulting with asset owners and consultants to develop and “extend the solution set”.£28bn LGPS pool joins UK-China climate reporting pilot groupThe £28bn (€32bn) Brunel Pensions Partnership is among investors in a group of UK and Chinese financial institutions trialling reporting of climate-related financial disclosures.The group has been put together by the City of London Green Finance Initiative, China Green Finance Committee and the PRI.It will pilot reporting in accordance with the guidelines issued by the Taskforce on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD), which operates under the auspices of the Financial Stability Board.According to a statement from the City of London Green Finance Initiative, the other financial institutions participating in the pilot are Aviva, HSBC, Hermes, E-Fund, HuaXia (China Asset Management), ICBC and Industrial Bank.The People’s Bank of China and the Bank of England will provide input to the group.The PRI will co-ordinate the investors participating in the pilot and share its expertise on global good practice. The investors are understood to be participating as preparers of the climate reporting rather than as users of corporates’ disclosure.The pilot was endorsed by the UK and Chinese governments at an event held in Beijing in December.ESG fund launchesAsset managers’ recognition of the investor appetite for what could be called ESG funds shows now sign of abating, with the beginning of the new year already seeing several launches.These include:a sustainable global equity fund from Newton Investment Management;a sustainable listed infrastructure fund from First State Investments;two socially responsible exchange-traded funds listed on the London Stock Exchange, run by UBS Asset Management; anda Sustainable Development Goals equities fund, from Union Investment.last_img read more

Galway claim All-Ireland Under-21 title

first_img The Tribesmen took up the attacking mantle in the early stages with Shane Walsh, Cathal Mulryan and Adrian Varley shooting them into a 0-5 to 0-1 lead by the 19th minute. Brian Hurley narrowed the gap with a couple of points, but three wonderful scores from Ian Burke ensured that the Connacht champions held onto a healthy lead throughout the first half. Galway won their second All-Ireland Under-21 football championship title in three years with a 1-14 to 1-11 victory over Cork at the Limerick Gaelic Grounds. Press Associationcenter_img As half-time approached, Dan MacEoin slotted over a couple of Cork scores. At the break, Galway led by 0-9 to 0-5, and in the 40th minute they struck for a goal, Damien Comer picking up Varley’s lay-off to blast the ball to the roof of the net. Cork hit back with a superb goal from Brian Hurley, who gave Thomas Healy no chance with an angled shot to the top corner of the net. They added points through Cathal Vaughan and Dan MacEoin to set up a gripping finish, but Galway had the character, the grit and the defensive nous to hold out for their fifth title at this level. last_img read more

Livermore eyes permanent Hull move

first_img The 23-year-old Tottenham midfielder is spending the season at the KC Stadium after a number of high-profile arrivals at Spurs shunted him down the pecking order. Livermore had already spent loan spells at Derby, Peterborough, Ipswich and Leeds before his first-team breakthrough at White Hart Lane and admits that he is enjoying being a key part of Hull’s plans. Press Association Manager Steve Bruce has already indicated he would be interested in a future deal and the player appears to be open to it as well. “I’m quite prepared for the question to be asked,” he said. “Of course, there’s no reason why I wouldn’t look at it. They’ve got all the groundwork to be a massive club and to go forward. “That’s what it feels like, it feels as if I need a home now in football. “I’m happy coming in each day and doing my business so we’ll wait and see in January or at the end of the season. “I’m prepared for anything in football. I’m enjoying my time here, I love the lads, the manager and the fans. “Everyone here is brilliant and I’m getting a run of games so it’s so far, so good.” Livermore has enjoyed his partnership with his former Tottenham team-mate Tom Huddlestone, who signed permanently for Hull in the summer. Jake Livermore is willing to talk to Hull City about making his loan move permanent after declaring he “needs a home”. The fact that both had to leave the club to achieve their goal of regular playing time is symptomatic of the struggles encountered by many young English players at Champions League-chasing clubs. New England winger Andros Townsend is making headway in Spurs’ star-studded squad but Livermore believes maintaining his place could be the hardest part. “It’s very difficult to stay at a big club. There are great big expectations from the club and the fans and the manager are under pressure,” he said. “It’s almost an easy option to bring a player in who’s fairly established rather than take a chance on a younger lad. “Tottenham have spent an awful lot of money in the past window but there’s a lot of talent in the country and at Tottenham and their two breaths of fresh air this season seem to be Andros and Harry Kane, who cost them nothing.” last_img read more